2017 Research Papers
Writing Behaviors Relation to Literacy and Problem Solving in Technology Rich Environments (Iris Feinberg, Amani Talwar, Elizabeth Tighe, and Daphne Greenberg, The Adult Literacy Research Center at Georgia State University)
This paper will use PIAAC 2012/2014 data to study relations among the PIAAC literacy domain, the problem solving in technology-rich environments (PS-TRE) domain, reading behaviors, and various demographic characteristics (e.g., age, educational attainment, race, gender, and native language status) to adults’ writing behaviors at home and at work. Specifically the researchers will address the following questions:
- What are the relations among the writing behaviors indices at home/at work and the reading behaviors indices at home/at work? Do these relations vary by demographic characteristics (age, educational attainment, race, gender, or native language status) and reading behaviors?
- Are PIAAC LIT and PSTRE skills jointly and uniquely predictive of writing behaviors indices at home and/or at work? Do different demographic characteristics (age, educational attainment, race, gender, or native language status) and/or reading behavior indices at home/at work moderate the relations of LIT and PSTRE levels on writing behaviors at home and/or at work?
- What are the relations among functional daily reading behaviors at home/at work (reading directions, letters/emails, newspapers/magazines, books) and functional daily writing behaviors at home/at work (writing letters/emails, filling out forms)? Do these relations vary by demographic characteristics (literacy level, age, educational attainment, race, gender, or native language status)?
Revisiting the Determinants of Literacy Proficiency: A Lifelong-lifewide Learning Perspective (Richard Desjardins and Gina Cobin, University of California Los Angeles)
This paper will use PIAAC data to examine the determinants of literacy proficiency. Specifically, the authors aim to further examine the underlying structure of the determinants from a lifecycle perspective and the trends in this structure at both the micro and macro levels for countries that participated in both the PIAAC and IALS studies. The authors will address the following questions:
- To what extent has literacy proficiency changed since the 1990s and how does this relate to the growth of qualifications and knowledge economies as well as immigration in different countries?
- What is the underlying structure of adult literacy from a lifecycle theory perspective? What indicators and pathways to adult literacy proficiency emerge from analysis of data from both the PIAAC and IALS studies?
- What are the kinds of policy relevant insights that can be yielded from analyses of PIAAC type trend data regarding the determinants of adult literacy proficiency across specific contexts and across countries?
Collaboration at Work and PIAAC Skills (Joshua Collins, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities; Jill Zarestky, Colorado State University; Tobin Lopes, Colorado State University; and Ellen Scully-Russ, George Washington University)
This paper is focused on studying the relationship between level of collaboration, cooperation, and information sharing at work and respondents’ skills in literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology-rich environments. Specifically authors will address the following questions:
- How does the relationship between collaboration and information sharing and literacy, numeracy, and PS-TRE skill levels differ by gender, education, and industry sector?
- How does the relationship between collaboration and information sharing and adults’ use of specified skills differ by gender, education, and industry sector?
- How is collaboration and information sharing related to U.S. adults’ participation in learning activities (e.g., open/distance education, on-the-job training, seminars/workshops, private lessons)?
What If A College Major Isn’t Enough?: The Relationship Between Measures Of Literacy And Numeracy Skills, College Graduates' Majors And Earnings (Karly Ford and Junghee Choi, Pennsylvania State University)
This paper will use combined 2012/14 U.S. PIAAC data to study whether literacy and numeracy skills mediate the relationship between college majors and earnings. The proposed analysis would explore the role individual skill plays in the relationship between academic major and labor market earnings for college graduates. The working sample includes only 4-year college graduates, between the ages 25 and 65. In order to observe only those with strong labor market commitments, the sample is limited to those who work full-time; those who reported working at least 30 hours a week.
Using Log Files to Identify Sequential Patterns in the PIAAC Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environment by U.S. Adults’ Employment Status (Dandan Liao, University of Maryland; Qiwei He, Educational Testing Service; and Hong Jiao, University of Maryland)
This paper will use PIAAC 2012 process data collected in log files and existing data from the PIAAC survey, to identify malleable factors from employment-related background variables associated with problem-solving skills that can be of use in improving these competences in US adult education. In particular, the author will address the following three questions:
- What features can we extract from process data by subgroups with different employment status?
- Clustering participants based on features extracted from process data, what do participants in each cluster have in common regarding employment-related variables? In other words, what are the characteristics of the clusters with respect to employment?
- Are the significant employment-related variables found from the first two research questions consistent across items?
Intergenerational Social Mobility in the United States (Sara Oloomi)
This paper will use PIAAC 2012/2014 United States data to study the impact of parental education on their children’s outcomes, including differences by sociodemographic characteristics and a specific look at the impact within STEM fields. The author will address the following questions:
- Is parental education associated with outcomes of their children, including education, employment status, occupational skill classification, earning, and cognitive skills (literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving scores) in the U.S.?
- 1 Do the relationships between parental education and outcomes of children vary across different segments of the population including racial/ethnic and gender groups in the U.S.?
- What are the ranges of relative and absolute upward mobility in education, employment status, occupational skill classification, earning, and cognitive skills (literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving scores) in the U.S.?
- Is parental education associated with propensity to study/work in STEM?
3.1 To what extent parental education is associated with the gender gap in study/work in STEM? Is the gender gap lower among children with high parental education compared to children with low parental education?
3.2 Do the relationships between parental education and propensity to study/work in STEM as well as gender gap in STEM vary across different racial/ethnic groups?
Adults’ Civic Engagement in Germany and the US: Evidence from the PIAAC Survey (Amy D. Rose, Northern Illinois University; Jill Zarestky, Colorado State University; Tobin Lopes, Colorado State University; Marion Fleige, German Institute for Adult Education (DIE); M Cecil Smith, West Virginia University; Thomas J. Smith, Northern Illinois University; and Jovita M. Ross-Gordon, Texas State University)
This paper will examine the broad construct of civic engagement, comparing native born and non-native born individuals in the US and Germany. Specifically, the authors will examine how several variables, including gender, years worked, work status, education, and age, predict outcomes related to civic engagement, including adults’ volunteer work activities, political efficacy, and social trust in the U.S. and Germany and how relationships these differ between the two countries by exploring the following questions:
- Among persons in Germany and the U.S., do skill proficiency, gender, years worked, work status, education, age, and immigration status predict specific aspects of civic engagement (i.e. volunteer work for non-profit organizations, political efficacy, and dimensions of social trust)?
- Do the effects of skill proficiency, gender, years worked, work status, education, age, and immigration status predict specific aspects of civic engagement ((i.e. volunteer work for non-profit organizations, political efficacy, and dimensions of social trust) and do these differ between individuals in Germany and in the U.S.?
- What are the moderating effects of immigration status on the relationships between (1) skill proficiency gender, years worked, work status, education, and (2) specific aspects of civic engagement (volunteer work for non-profit organizations, political efficacy, and dimensions of social trust), and do any moderating effects differ between Germany and the U.S.?
The Changing Impact of Literacy Skill on Key Indicators of Macro-economic Performance in OECD Countries (Serge Coulombe, The University of Ottawa and Scott Murray, DataAngel Policy Research)
The authors will study the impact that changes in the average level of literacy skill and in the distribution of literacy skill have had on key indicators of macroeconomic performance including the rates of GDP growth and labor productivity growth in OECD economies using data from the 2003 ALL and the 2011 OECD PIAAC adult skills survey. The goal will be to highlight how these impacts have changed and to estimate the magnitude of lost output associated with skill loss. This latter analysis will shed light on the potential benefits of policy measures that would increase the demand for literacy skill enough to reduce skill loss to zero.
What Demographic and Skill-level Factors Predict the Desire to Enroll in a Postsecondary Education Class or Program Among People in Prison in the U.S.? (Ruth Delaney, Margaret diZerega, Lionel Smith, and Heather Erwin, Vera Institute of Justice)
This paper will use 2014 PIAAC prison data to study demographic and skill-level factors that predict the desire to enroll in a postsecondary program among incarcerated adults detained in the U.S federal and state prisons. The authors will study the following question:
- What demographic and skill-level factors impact which incarcerated adults want to enroll in a pre-associate education program or higher in comparison to their peers who do not want to enroll in any academic class or program of study?
Using the U.S. PIAAC Prison Data to Examine the Relationship between Cognitive Skills and Correctional Education Programs (Jinghong Cai, Anirudh V.S. Ruhil, and Dianne Gut, Ohio University)
This paper will use 2014 PIAAC prison data to study the association between literacy/numeracy and correctional education as it relates to program type, ways of course offerings, and job/education history prior to incarceration. Specifically, the author will examine the relationship between participation in correctional education programs while incarcerated and literacy/numeracy skills addressing the following research questions:
- What are the characteristics of participants in different types of correctional education programs in terms of gender, race, age, parents’ immigration background, completed education level, and history of incarceration?
- To what extent is attending/not attending a correctional education program associated with the variation in levels of literacy and numeracy? What is the relationship between the time spent in correctional education programs and the level of literacy/numeracy?
- What is the distribution of learning via different ways of courses offering (i.e., offered in jail or correctional facility versus others such as offered by college/university through distance education) across academic programs (e.g., GED and degree programs)? What is the relationship between ways of course offering and the literacy/numeracy of participants?
- What are the reported reasons for attending or not attending correctional education programs across different programs based on history of incarceration? Are there any commonalities among the reasons expressed by low and high literacy/numeracy groups for participating or not participating in correctional education programs?
The Influence of Correctional Education, Skills, and Lifelong Learning on Social Outcomes (Roofia Galeshi and Riane Bolin, Radford University)
This paper will use the 2014 PIAAC prison data to study whether numeracy and literacy skills along with inmate educational and vocational training have an impact on social outcomes. Specifically, they will address the following questions:
- How does literacy, numeracy, formal education, and vocational training affect prison inmates’ social outcomes such as civic engagement, interpersonal trust, and health?
- How does the relationship between literacy, numeracy, formal education, and vocational training and social outcomes compare in the two populations—prison and household?
Factors That Influence the Educational Attainment, Employment, Economic Mobility, and Successful Reentry of Incarcerated Parents (Daniel M. Leeds, Juliana Pearson, and Leslie Scott, CNA Education)
This paper will use 2014 PIAAC prison data to study factors that influence the educational attainment, employment, economic mobility, and successful reentry of the justice-involved parents. Specifically, they will answer the following questions:
- What percent of the incarcerated population has one or more dependent children?
- Does the highest level of education for incarcerated parents with dependent children vary by literacy and numeracy skill levels (level 2 and below, level 3, and level 4/5)?
- What percent of incarcerated parents with dependent children were employed prior to incarceration? How do employment rates differ for incarcerated parents of varying literacy and numeracy skill levels (level 2 and below, level 3, and level 4/5)?
- What percent of incarcerated parents with dependent children were unemployed prior to incarceration? How do unemployment rates differ for incarcerated parents of varying literacy and numeracy skill levels (level 2 and below, level 3, and level 4/5)?
- For what percent of potential working years (equal to age minus [imputed] years of schooling minus six) were incarcerated parents with dependent children employed? Does this differ systematically for incarcerated individuals without dependent children?
- Do income sources vary for incarcerated parents with dependent children by literacy and numeracy skill levels (level 2 and below, level 3, and level 4/5)?
- To what extent are the literacy and numeracy skills of incarcerated parents with dependent children influenced by the educational attainment of their parents?
- What percent of incarcerated parents with dependent children have expressed an interest in pursuing education and training while in prison? How does this compare with incarcerated individuals without dependent children?
- Are incarcerated parents with dependent children more likely than incarcerated individuals without dependent children to participate in education and training while in prison? What are the motivating factors?
Henry Ford was one of the first American industrialists. He is best known for his revolutionary achievements in the automobile industry. His love for automobiles started at the age of sixteen. But before that, he was just another small-town farmer.
The Ford farm was located near Dearborn, Michigan. It was here Henry Ford was born, on July 20,1863. He went to local district schools like the rest of the children from his town.
In 1880 Henry became a machinist’s apprentice in Detroit, where he learned the basics. Then only two years later Ford became a certified machinist, but returned to the family farm. 1888 to 1899 he was a mechanical engineer, and later chief engineer, with the Edison Illuminating Company. Ford married in 1891 and he and his bride, Clara Bryant, left the farm in Michigan and moved to Detroit.
His life prospered in Detroit and with the birth of his daughter Edsel, in 1893, many people believed he should get a job that was more stable than trying to build cars. Most believed they were simple toys and would never replace the horse-drawn carriage.
Then on the morning of June 4, 1896 Henry finished his first ever car, which became known as the Quadricycle. He took it for a drive around his block as many people stared. It was only big enough for him, even though his wife was excited about taking a ride in the horseless carriage. Soon she would get the experience, when he made the seat bigger and took to car out to his parents home.
Finally having his work taken seriously, Henry formed the Ford Motor Company in 1903. Before his first year was up of owning the company the first Model A appeared on the market in Detroit. This would lead to many publicity events and even a law suit with the ALAM over the Selden Patent, which he eventually won. Then in 1908 he brought out the extremely popular the Model T.
By 1912 Ford had many new ideas on ways In 1913 Ford began using the same parts and assembly-line techniques in his plant. Even though Ford did not come up with the idea or was the first to us assembly-line ideas, he was mainly responsible for their general adoption and for the following great development of American industry and the raising of the American standard of living. Around early 1914 this improvement, even though it greatly increased production, had resulted in a monthly labor earnings of 40 to 60 percent in his factory, mostly because of the unpleasant dullness of assembly-line work and repeated increases in the production quotas assigned to workers. Ford met this trouble by increasing his workers pay from what the normal manual laborer was making, $2.50, to $5. This increased stability in his labor force and a large decrease in operating costs. These factors, along with the huge increase in output made possible by new hi-tech methods, led to a doubling in company profits in two years. They went from $30 million in 1914 to $60 million in 1916.
In 1927 the Model T was discontinued for a newer up-to-date version of the Model A. The company ended up selling almost 15 million cars. But in the next few years Ford’s leadership of the American car industry (as the largest producer and seller) dropped with his trouble of introducing a new car every year which had now become normal in the car business. During the 1930s Ford adopted the policy of the yearly changeover, but his company was unable to regain the position it had held before.
From 1937 to 1941, the Ford company was the only major manufacturer of automobiles in the Detroit area that did not have any labor union as the collective bargaining spokesperson of employees. There were hearings in front of the National Labor Relations Board Ford in which Ford was found guilty of repeated violations of the National Labor Relations Act. The findings against him were upheld on appeal to the federal courts. Ford was forced to make a standard labor contract after a successful strike by the workers at his main plant at River Rouge, Michigan, in April 1941.
In early 1941 the government granted Ford contracts which stated he was, at first, to manufacture parts for bombers and at one point an entire airplane. He then started the construction of a large plant at Willow Run, Michigan. His plant was a success, as it manufactured more than 8000 planes by the end of WW1.
Henry Ford had many other accomplishments other than just that of cars. He went on peace ship to try to help stop WW1, was nominated for U.S. senator from Michigan, but he was defeated. In the next year he built the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit which cost nearly 7.5 million. In 1919 he became the publisher of a weekly journal called the Dearborn Independent.
Ford was forced to retire from the active work of his many enterprises in 1945. He died two years later on April 7,1947 of stroke. Most of Ford’s fortune, estimated to have been between $500 to $700 million, went to the Ford Motor Company and started the nonprofit organization called the Ford Foundation.
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