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80 120 Essay Examples

Every piece of formal writing that you complete must contain a clear introduction and conclusion. The purpose of the introduction is to prepare the reader for what they are about to read. The conclusion should summarise the content of what you have discussed.

In writing an introduction and conclusion, follow the guidelines presented below.

Introductions

An introduction should include the following:

  1. Background information
    This is normally two or three sentences which give the reader general information about the topic that you will write about.
  2. Thesis statement/topic
    This is the most important part of the introduction. It introduces the main topic or argument on which the essay will be based.
  3. Outline
    The outline tells the reader what the sub-topics of the essay will be and in doing so how the essay will be organised.
  4. Scope
    This section is only required if you are going to narrow your discussion of the topic down e.g. to a particular time or place.

Example 1: The underlined section of the paragraph is the thesis statement

Education plays an important role in the community’s capacity to deal with emergencies, following a disaster or when a country is in conflict, contributing stability to the lives of girls and boys and helping families to heal and look forward. The benefits of educating girls have long been established. Now there is new understanding as to why educating girls is the most urgent task facing the global development community. This paper will argue that it is girls’ education that is the most effective means of combating many of the most profound challenges to human development, and that for communities, the strategies for providing girls the opportunities to complete their educationyield benefits for all.

Example 2: The underlined section of the paragraph is the thesis statement

Increasingly, research associated with prenatal development suggests the mother’s health and lifestyle have some influence on the life of the foetus. This essay will show that the physical health of the mother and her lifestyle will greatly influence the development of the foetus. It will show this by examining the effects of the following on a mother and in turn on her unborn child: smoking, malnutrition, drugs and diseases.

Try this interactive activity to find out how well you understood essay introductions.

Conclusions

The conclusion usually starts with ‘In conclusion’, or ‘To sum up…” and should:

  • restate your thesis or the main idea of the paper
  • give an outline: This provides a summary of the sub-topics/issues covered in the essay
  • qualify your thesis: Review the thesis statement acknowledging significant counter evidence if necessary.

Example 1: The underlined section of the paragraph is the thesis statement

The arguments presented in this paper have shown that educating girls from the very early years not only ensures that girls grow up healthier and more able to protect themselves and ensure their own well being; educating girls also benefits communities. Through the provision of resources and improved services implemented to support girls’ education, the lives of all people in a community improve. In addition, educating girls equates to educating women who will in the future be able to better nurture and support their families. All in all, it has to be said that educating a girl is equivalent to educating a whole family and educating a community.

Example 2: The underlined section of the paragraph is the thesis statement

In all, it is possible to conclude that the physical health of the mother will greatly influence the development of the foetus. In the majority of cases, the factors influencing the mother’s health such as smoking, malnutrition, drugs and diseases are closely related so that it becomes difficult for researchers to determine which factor and to what extent that factor is responsible for the adverse effects caused to development of the foetus. However, a great deal of the research associated with prenatal development does indicate that the main influences on the environment and development of the foetus are from controllable causes.

Try this interactive activity to find out how well you understood essay conclusions.

Ей показалось, что столь своевременная кончина Танкадо решила все проблемы. - Коммандер, - сказала она, - если власти говорят, что он умер от сердечного приступа, это значит, мы к его смерти не причастны. Его партнер поймет, что АНБ не несет за нее ответственности.