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Rhode Island Court Rules Annotated Bibliography

Legal Citation

Almost every legal article, judicial decision, book, treatise or encyclopedia contains citations to other legal authorities. To fully utilize these sources, and to know how to locate a particular legal source within a publication, you must know how to decipher legal citations.

Most citations to statutes, encyclopedias, digests and treatises will look like this: 

123 XXX. 456 (2003).

  • 123 is the volume number.
  • XXX is the abbreviation of the source.
  • means "section."
  • 456 is the section number.
  • (2003) is the year of the publication or year the decision was issued.

Citations to judicial decisions will look like this:

Smith v. Jones, 123 XXX. 456, 789 (3rd Cir. 1953).

  • 123 is the volume number.
  • XXX is the abbreviation of the reporter.
  • 456 is the page number on which the decision begins.
  • 789 is the page number on which the quoted or referenced language is found - this is also referred to as the pinpoint cite.
  • (3rd Cir. 1953) is the court that the case was decided in and the year the decision was issued.

Although some legal citations vary, once you understand the basics, the entire world of legal citation will be open to you. For example:

While in court, Drew and Sam, attorneys for the plaintiff and defendant, respectively, engage in oral argument, both citing the case State v. Andrews. The court, wishing to review the case on its own, requests the citation for the case. Both attorneys know that the case is found in volume 83 of the U.S. Reports, beginning on page 201. Drew tells the court that the citation is 201 U.S. 83; Sam states that Drew’s citation is misstated, and that the correct citation is 83 U.S. 201. The court instructs its clerk to pull both volumes from the library and learns that the proper citation is in fact 83 U.S. 201.

A book that has been deemed essential is The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (commonly referred to as the “Bluebook”). Many law schools require their students to learn citation formats set out in the Bluebook, and many law journals, reviews and other periodicals require their citations to conform to the Bluebook’s formats. Almost every citation you could ever need is contained in the Bluebook, and it is commonly and often referred to by attorneys and paralegals to decipher uncommon references. 

The following is a list of common abbreviations for various legal sources you are likely to encounter quite often. The citations may sometimes vary from how they are listed here, but the list is a good base from which to distill the meanings of other citations.


Federal citations:

United States Reports (contains United States Supreme Court decisions; official publication)
S. Ct.
Supreme Court Reporter (contains United States Supreme Court decisions)
L. Ed; L. Ed. 2d
Lawyer’s Edition (contains United States Supreme Court decisions)
United States Law Week (contains United States Supreme Court decisions)
F.; F.2d; F.3d
Federal Reporter (contains decisions from United States Courts of Appeals)
F. Supp.; F. Supp. 2d
Federal Supplement (contains decisions from United States District Courts)
Federal Rules Decisions (contains decisions from United States District Courts)
Bankruptcy Reporter (contains decisions from United States District Courts, Bankruptcy Courts and Bankruptcy Appellate Panels regarding bankruptcy cases)
Code of Federal Regulations (contains federal regulations)
Fed. Reg.
Federal Register (contains the federal administrative register, including notices of proposed rulemakings)

State citations:
Regional reporters: 

A., A.2d
Atlantic Reporter (contains decisions from Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
N.E., N.E.2d
North Eastern Reporter (contains decisions from Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio)
N.W., N.W.2d
North Western Reporter (contains decisions from Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin)
P., P.2d, P.3d
Pacific Reporter (contains decisions from Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming)
S.E., S.E.2d
South Eastern Reporter (contains decisions from Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia)
So.; So. 2d
Southern Reporter (contains decisions from Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi)
S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
South Western Reporter (contains decisions from Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas)


Alabama Reports (to 1976)
Ala. App.
Alabama Appellate Court Reports (to 1976)
Ala. Code
Code of Alabama (statutes)
Ala. Admin. Code
Alabama Administrative Code


Alaska Stat.
Alaska Statutes
Alaska Admin. Code
Alaska Administrative Code 


Arizona Reports
Ariz. App.
Arizona Appeals Reports
Ariz. Rev. Stat.
Arizona Revised Statutes
Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann.
Arizona Revised Statutes Annotated
Ariz. Admin. Code
Arizona Administrative CodeArkansas


Arkansas Reports
Ark. App.
Arkansas Appellate Reports
Ark. Code Ann.
Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated


Cal., Cal. 2d, Cal. 3d, Cal. 4th
California Reports
Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. 2d
West’s California Reporter
Cal. App., Cal. App. 2d, Cal. App. 3d, Cal. App. 4th
California Appellate Reports
Cal. App. Supp., Cal. App. 2d Supp., Cal. App. 3d Supp., Cal. App. 4th Supp.
California Appellate Reports Supplement
Cal. [subject] Code
West’s Annotated California Code
Cal. Stat.
Statutes of California
Cal. Code Regs.
California Code of Regulations


Colorado Reports
Colo. App.
Colorado Court of Appeals Reports
Colo. Rev. Stat.
Colorado Revised Statutes
Colo. Code Regs.
Code of Colorado Regulations


Connecticut Reports
Conn. App.
Connecticut Appellate Reports
Conn. Supp.
Connecticut Supplement (for Superior Court decisions)
Conn. L. Rptr.
Connecticut Law Reporter
Conn. Super.
Connecticut Superior Court Reports
General Statutes
Connecticut Statutes of Connecticut
Conn. Agencies Regs.
Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies


Delaware Reports 
Del. Ch.
Delaware Chancery Reports
Del. Code Ann.
Delaware Code Annotated

District of Columbia:

D.C. Code Ann.
District of Columbia Code Annotated
D.C. Muni. Regs.
D.C. Municipal Regulations


Florida Reports
Fla. Supp., Fla. Supp. 2d
Florida Supplement (contains decisions from Circuit Court of Florida)
Fla. Stat.
Florida Statutes
Fla. Stat. Ann.
Florida Statutes Annotated
Fla. Admin. Code Ann.
Florida Administrative Code Annotated


Georgia Reports
Ga. App.
Georgia Appeals Reports
Ga. Code Ann.
Official Code of Georgia Annotated
Ga. Comp. R. & Regs.
Official Compilation Rules and Regulations of the State of Georgia


Hawaii Reports; West’s Hawaii Reports
Haw. App.
Hawaii Appellate Reports
Haw. Rev. Stat.
Hawaii Revised Statutes
Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann.
Hawaii Revised Statutes Annotated


Idaho Reports
Idaho Code
Idaho Official Code


Ill., Ill. 2d
Illinois Reports
Ill. Dec.
Illinois Decisions
Ill. App., Ill. App. 2d, Ill. App. 3d
Illinois Appellate Court Reports
Ill. Ct. Cl.
Illinois Court of Claims Reports
Ill. Comp. Stat.
Illinois Compiled Statutes
Ill. Admin. Code
Illinois Administrative Code


Indiana Reports
Ind. App.
Indiana Court of Appeals Reports
Ind. Code
Indiana Code
Ind. Code Ann.
West’s Annotated Indiana Code
Ind. Admin. Code
Indiana Administrative Code


Iowa Reports
Iowa Code
Code of Iowa
Iowa Code Ann.
Iowa Code Annotated
Iowa Admin. Code
Iowa Administrative Code


Kansas Reports
Kan. App., Kan. App. 2d
Kansas Court of Appeals Reports
Kan. Stat. Ann.
Kansas Statutes Annotated
Kan. Admin. Regs.
Kansas Administrative Regulations


Kentucky Reports
Ky. App. Rptr.
Kentucky Appellate Reporter
Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann.
Kentucky Revised Statutes Annotated, Official Edition
Ky. Admin. Regs.
Kentucky Administrative Regulations Service


Louisiana Reports
La. App.
Louisiana Court of Appeals Reports
La. Rev. Stat. Ann.
West’s Louisiana Revised Statutes Annotated
La. Admin. Code
Louisiana Administrative Code


Maine Reports
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann.
Maine Revised Statutes Annotated
Code Me. R.
Code of Maine Rules


Maryland Reports
Md. App.
Maryland Appellate Reports
Md. Code Ann.
Annotated Code of Maryland
Md. Regs. Code
Code of Maryland Regulations


Massachusetts Reports
Mass. App. Ct.
Massachusetts Appeals Court Reports
Mass. App. Div.
Appellate Division Reports
Mass. Supp.
Massachusetts Reports Supplement
Mass. Gen. Laws
General Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann.
Massachusetts General Laws Annotated
Mass. Regs. Code
Code of Massachusetts Regulations


Michigan Reports
Mich. App.
Michigan Appeals Reports
Mich. Comp. Laws
Michigan Compiled Laws
Mich. Comp. Laws Ann.
Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated
Mich. Admin. Code
Michigan Administrative Code


Minnesota Reports
Minn. Stat.
Minnesota Statutes
Minn. Stat. Ann.
Minnesota Statutes Annotated
Minn. R.
Minnesota Rules


Mississippi Reports
Miss. Code Ann.
Mississippi Code Annotated


Missouri Reports
Mo. App.
Missouri Appeals Reports
Mo. Rev. Stat.
Missouri Revised Statutes
Mo. Ann. Stat.
Vernon’s Annotated Missouri Statutes
Mo. Code Regs. Ann.
Missouri Code of State Regulations Annotated


Montana Reports
Mon. Code Ann.
Montana Code Annotated
Mont. Rev. Code Ann.
Revised Codes of Montana Annotated
Mont. Admin. R.
Administrative Rules of Montana


Nebraska Reports
Neb. Ct. App.
Nebraska Court of Appeals Reports
Neb. Rev. Stat.
Revised Statutes of Nebraska
Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann.
Revised Statutes of Nebraska Annotated
Neb. Admin. Code
Nebraska Administrative Code


Nevada Reports
Nev. Rev. Stat.
Nevada Revised Statutes
Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann.
Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated
Nev. Admin. Code
Nevada Administrative Code

New Hampshire:

New Hampshire Reports
N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann.
New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated
N.H. Code Admin. R.
New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules Annotated

New Jersey:

New Jersey Reports
N.J. Super
New Jersey Superior Court Reports
N.J. Stat. Ann.
New Jersey Statutes Annotated
N.J. Admin. Code
New Jersey Administrative Code

New Mexico:

New Mexico Reports
N.M. Stat. Ann.
New Mexico Statutes Annotated
N.M. Admin. Code
New Mexico Administrative Code

New York:

N.Y., N.Y.2d
New York Reports
N.Y.S., N.Y.S. 2d
West’s New York Supplement
A.D., A.D.2d
Appellate Division Reports
Misc., Misc. 2d
New York Miscellaneous Reports
N.Y. [subject] Law
McKinney’s Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated
N.Y. Comp. Codes R. (N.Y.C.R.R.)
Official Compilation of Codes, Rules & Regulations of the State of New York

North Carolina:

North Carolina Reports
N.C. App.
North Carolina Court of Appeals Reports
N.C. Gen. Stat.
General Statutes of North Carolina
N.C. Admin. Code
North Carolina Administrative Code

North Dakota:

North Dakota Reports
N.D. Cent. Code
North Dakota Century Code
N.D. Admin. Code
North Dakota Administrative Code


Ohio St., Ohio St. 2d, Ohio St. 3d
Ohio State Reports
Ohio App., Ohio App. 2d, Ohio App. 3d
Ohio Appellate Reports
Ohio Misc., Ohio Misc. 2d
Ohio Miscellaneous
Ohio Rev. Code Ann.
Baldwin’s Ohio Revised Code Annotated
Ohio Admin. Code
Ohio Administrative Code


Oklahoma Reports
Okla. Stat.
Oklahoma Statutes
Okla. Stat. Ann.
Oklahoma Statutes Annotated
Okla. Admin. Code
Oklahoma Administrative Code


Oregon Reports
Or. App.
Oregon Reports, Court of Appeals
Or. Rev. Stat.
Oregon Revised Statutes
Or. Admin. R.
Oregon Administrative Rules


Pennsylvania State Reports
Pa. Super.
Pennsylvania Superior Court Reports
Pa. Commw.
Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court Reports
Pa. Cons. Stat.
Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes
Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann.
Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes Annotated
Pa. Code
Pennsylvania Code

Rhode Island:

Rhode Island Reports
R.I. Gen. Laws
General Laws of Rhode Island
R.I. Code R.
Code of Rhode Island Rules

South Carolina:

South Carolina Reports
S.C. Code Ann.
Code of Laws of South Carolina
S.C. Code Ann. Regs.
Code of Laws of South Carolina  1976 Annotated, Code of Regulations

South Dakota:

South Dakota Reports
S.D. Codified Laws
South Dakota Codified Laws
S.D. Admin. R.
Administrative Rules of South Dakota


Tennessee Reports
Tenn. App.
Tennessee Appeals Reports
Tenn. Code Ann.
Tennessee Code Annotated
Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs.
Official Compilation Rules & Regulations of the State of Tennessee


Texas Reports
Tex. [subject] Code Ann.
Vernon’s Texas Codes Annotated
Tex. Admin. Code
Texas Administrative Code


Utah, Utah 2d
Utah Reports
Utah Coe Ann.
Utah Code Annotated
Utah Admin. Code
Utah Administrative Code


Vermont Reports
Vt. Stat. Ann.
Vermont Statutes Annotated
Vt. Code R.
Code of Vermont Rules


Virginia Reports
Va. App.
Virginia Court of Appeals Reports
Va. Code Ann.
Code of Virginia Annotated
Va. Admin. Code
Virginia Administrative Code


Wash., Wash. 2d
Washington Reports
Wash. App.
Washington Appellate Reports
Wash. Rev. Code
Revised Code of Washington
Wash. Rev. Code Ann.
Revised Code of Washington Annotated
Wash. Admin. Code
Washington Administrative Code

West Virginia:

W. Va.
West Virginia Reports
W. Va. Code
West Virginia Code
W. Va. Code Ann.
West Virginia Code Annotated
W. Va. Code St. R.
West Virginia Code of State Rules


Wis., Wis. 2d
Wisconsin Reports
Wis. Stat.
Wisconsin Statutes
Wis. Stat. Ann.
Wisconsin Statutes Annotated
Wis. Admin. Code
Wisconsin Administrative Code


Wyoming Reports
Wyo. Stat. Ann.
Wyoming Statutes Annotated



Like reporters, courts have their own abbreviations. Following is a list of common abbreviations:


United States Supreme Court

United States Court of Appeals for the:

1st Cir.First Circuit
2d Cir.
Second Circuit
3d Cir.
Third Circuit
4th Cir.
Fourth Circuit
5th Cir.
Fifth Circuit
6th Cir.
Sixth Circuit
7th Cir.
Seventh Circuit
8th Cir.
Eighth Circuit
9th Cir.
Ninth Circuit
10th Cir.
Tenth Circuit
11th Cir
Eleventh Circuit
D.C. Cir.D.C. Circuit
Fed. Cir.
Federal Circuit

United States District Court for the:

D. Mass.
District of Massachusetts
Southern District of New York
Northern District of New York
N.D. Cal.
Northern District of California

Because there are so many state courts, it is best to review the jurisdictions rules to determine the appropriate citation before actually citing a state court decision. Examples of state courts are: N.Y. App. Div. (New York Appellate Division), N.M. Ct. App. (New Mexico Court of Appeals, Mass. App. Ct. (Massachusetts Appellate Court), La. Ct. App (Louisiana Court of Appeals).

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Rhode Island Court Rules Annotated offers the most comprehensive rules volume available in Rhode Island. The court rules volume contains complete case annotations, as well as extensive research references for all of the following rules:

State Rules

  • Supreme Court Rules, including Rules of Appellate Procedure and Rules of Professional Conduct
  • Superior Court Rules, including Rules of Civil Procedure and Rules of Criminal Procedure
  • District Court Rules, including Civil Rules, Rules of Criminal Procedure, and Rules of Small Claims
  • Family Court Rules, including Rules of Juvenile Proceedings
  • Rules of Evidence
  • Workers’ Compensation Court Rules of Practice
  • Traffic Tribunal Rules of Procedure
  • Federal Rules

  • Local Rules for the United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island
  • Rules of the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Rhode Island
  • Rules of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit